Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Common Infectious Diseases Worldwide

ccurate caseload numbers are difficult to determine, especially because so many of these diseases are endemic to developing countries, where many people do not have access to modern medical care. Approximately half of all deaths caused by infectious diseases each year can be attributed to just three diseases: tuberculosis, malaria, and AIDS. Together, these diseases cause over 300 million illnesses and more than 5 million deaths each year.
African Trypanosomiasis (“sleeping sickness”): African trypanosomiasis is spread by the tsetse fly, which is common to many African countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that nearly 450,000 cases occur each year. Symptoms of the disease include fever, headaches, joint pains, and itching in the early stage, and confusion, sensory disturbances, poor coordination, and disrupted sleep cycles in the second stage. If the disease goes untreated in its first stage, it causes irreparable neurological damage; if it goes untreated in its second stage, it is fatal.

Cholera: Cholera is a disease spread mostly through contaminated drinking water and unsanitary conditions. It is endemic in the Indian subcontinent, Russia, and sub-Saharan Africa. It is an acute infection of the intestines with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Its main symptom is copious diarrhea. Between 5% and 10% of those infected with the disease will develop severe symptoms, which also include vomiting and leg cramps. In its severe form, cholera can cause death by dehydration. An estimated 200,000 cases are reported to WHO annually.
Cryptosporidiosis: Cryptosporidiosis has become one of the most common causes of waterborne disease in the United States in recent years; it is also found throughout the rest of the world. It is caused by a parasite that spreads when a water source is contaminated, usually with the feces of infected animals or humans. Symptoms include diarrhea, stomach cramps, an upset stomach, and slight fever. Some people do not exhibit any symptoms.

Dengue: WHO estimates that 50 million cases of dengue fever appear each year. It is spread through the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Recent years have seen dengue outbreaks all over Asia and Africa. Dengue fever can be mild to moderate, and occasionally severe, though it is rarely fatal. Mild cases, which usually affect infants and young children, involve a nonspecific febrile illness, while moderate cases, seen in older children and adults, display high fever, severe headaches, muscle and joint pains, and rash. Severe cases develop into dengue hemorrhagic fever, which involves high fever, hemorrhaging, and sometimes circulatory failure.

Hepatitis A: Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus. Spread primarily by the fecal-oral route or by ingestion of contaminated water or food, the number of annual infections worldwide is estimated at 1.4 million. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, jaundice, and dark urine. Although those exposed usually develop lifelong immunity, the best protection against Hepatitis A is vaccination.

Hepatitis B: Approximately 2 billion people are infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), making it the most common infectious disease in the world today. Over 350 million of those infected never rid themselves of the infection. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that causes symptoms such as jaundice, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain; hepatitis B is the most serious form of the disease. Chronic infections can cause cirrhosis of the liver or liver cancer in later years.
Hepatitis C: Hepatitis C is a less common, and less severe, form of hepatitis. An estimated 180 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV); 3–4 million more are infected every year. The majority of HCV cases are asymptomatic, even in people who develop chronic infection.

HIV/AIDS: See Understanding AIDS

Influenza: Several influenza epidemics in the 20th century caused millions of deaths worldwide, including the worst epidemic in American history, the Spanish influenza outbreak that killed more than 500,000 in 1918. Today influenza is less of a public health threat, though it continues to be a serious disease that affects many people. Approximately 20,000 people die of the flu in the United States every year. The influenza virus attacks the human respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as fever, headaches, fatigue, coughing, sore throat, nasal congestion, and body aches.

Japanese Encephalitis: Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne disease endemic in Asia. Around 50,000 cases occur each year; 25% to 30% of all cases are fatal.

Leishmaniasis: Leishmaniasis is a disease spread by the bite of the sandfly. It is found mostly in tropical countries. There are several types of leishmaniasis, and they vary in symptoms and severity. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, or kala azar) is the most severe; left untreated, it is always fatal. Its symptoms include fever, weight loss, anemia, and a swelling of the spleen and liver. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL, or espundia) produces lesions that affect the nose, mouth, and throat and can destroy their mucous membranes. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) produces skin ulcers, sometimes as many as 200, that cause disability and extensive scarring. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is similar to CL, and infected people are prone to relapses. Approximately 12 million cases of leishmaniasis exist today.

Malaria: Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease that affects more than 500 million people annually, causing between 1 and 3 million deaths. It is most common in tropical and subtropical climates and is found in 90 countries—but 90% of all cases are found in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most of its victims are children. The first stage consists of shaking and chills, the next stage involves high fever and severe headache, and in the final stage the infected person's temperature drops and he or she sweats profusely. Infected people also often suffer from anemia, weakness, and a swelling of the spleen. Malaria was almost eradicated 30 years ago; now it is on the rise again.

Measles: Measles is a disease that has seen a drastic reduction in countries where a vaccine is readily available, but it is still prevalent in developing countries, where most of the 242,000 deaths (out of 30 million cases) it caused in 2006 occurred. Symptoms include high fever, coughing, and a maculo-papular rash; common complications include diarrhea, pneumonia, and ear infections.

Meningitis: Meningitis, often known as spinal meningitis, is an infection of the spinal cord. It is usually the result of a viral or bacterial infection. Bacterial meningitis is more severe than viral meningitis and may cause brain damage, hearing loss, and learning disabilities. An estimated 1.2 million cases of bacterial meningitis occur every year, over a tenth of which are fatal. Symptoms include severe headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, delirium, photophobia, and a stiff neck.

Onchocerciasis (“river blindness”): Onchocerciasis is caused by the larvae of Onchocerca volvulus, a parasitic worm that lives in the human body for years. It is endemic in Africa, where nearly all of the 18 million people infected with the disease live. Of those infected, over 6.5 million have developed dermatitis and 270,000 have gone blind. Symptoms include visual impairment, rashes, lesions, intense itching, skin depigmentation, and lymphadenitis.

Pneumonia: Pneumonia has many possible causes, but it is usually an infection of the streptococcus or mycoplasma bacteria. These bacteria can live in the human body without causing infection for years, and only surface when another illness has lowered the person's immunity to disease. Streptococcus pneumoniae causes streptococcal pneumonia, the most common kind, which is more severe than mycoplasmal pneumonia. S. pneumoniae is responsible for more than 100,000 hospitalizations for pneumonia annually, as well as 6 million cases of otitis media and over 60,000 cases of invasive diseases such as meningitis.

Rotavirus: Rotavirus is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. It kills more than 600,000 children each year, mostly in developing countries. Symptoms include vomiting, watery diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain.

Schistosomiasis: Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that is endemic in many developing countries. Roughly 200 million people worldwide are infected with the flukeworm, whose eggs cause the symptoms of the disease. Some 120 million of those infected are symptomatic, and 20 million suffer severely from the infection. Symptoms include rash and itchiness soon after becoming infected, followed by fever, chills, coughing, and muscle aches.

Shigellosis: Shigella infection causes an estimated 600,000 deaths worldwide every year. It is most common in developing countries with poor sanitation. Shigella bacteria cause bacillary dysentery, or shigellosis. Symptoms include diarrhea with bloody stool, vomiting, and abdominal cramps.

Strep Throat: Strep throat is caused by the streptococcus bacteria. Several million cases of strep throat occur every year. Symptoms include a sore throat, fever, headache, fatigue, and nausea.

Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis causes nearly 2 million deaths every year, and WHO estimates that nearly 1 billion people will be infected between 2000 and 2020 if more effective preventive procedures are not adopted. The TB bacteria are most often found in the lungs, where they can cause chest pain and a bad cough that brings up bloody phlegm. Other symptoms include fatigue, weight loss, appetite loss, chills, fever, and night sweats.

Typhoid: Typhoid fever causes an estimated 600,000 deaths annually, out of 12–17 million cases. It is usually spread through infected food or water. Symptoms include a sudden and sustained fever, severe headache, nausea, severe appetite loss, constipation, and sometimes diarrhea.

Yellow Fever: Yellow fever causes an estimated 30,000 deaths each year, out of 200,000 cases. The disease has two phases. In the “acute phase,” symptoms include fever, muscle pain, headache, shivers, appetite loss, nausea, and vomiting. This lasts for 3–4 days, after which most patients recover. But 15% will enter the “toxic phase,” in which fever reappears, along with other symptoms, including jaundice; abdominal pain; vomiting; bleeding from the mouth, nose, eyes, and stomach; and deterioration of kidney function (sometimes complete kidney failure). Half of all patients in the toxic phase die within two weeks; the other half recover.
Sources: The Centers for Disease Control (CDC); The World Health Organization (WHO).

Saturday, April 9, 2011

Microbiology an Introduction

Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are microscopic, unicellular, and cell-cluster organisms. This includes eukaryotes such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes. Viruses and prions, though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied. Microbiology typically includes the study of the immune system, or Immunology. Generally, immune systems interact with pathogenic microbes; these two disciplines often intersect which is why many colleges offer a paired degree such as "Microbiology and Immunology".Research can be defined as the search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, usually using a scientific method. The primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe.
Microbiology Research and Nepal…..
Nepal is a least developed and land locked country. Ecologically it is divided in to Mountain region, Hilly region and Terai region. Majority of population living in remote and village area and these areas are lacking many facilities and there is unplanned urbanization in developed part resulting in lack of health care facilities, places and water supply. Most of them have poor economic status and have little or no knowledge about proper sanitation so that infectious can be prevented. About 70% of all health problems are attributed by infectious diseases. Many children are dying from easily preventable and treatable diseases such as diarrhea and/or dysentery, and acute respiratory infections. Of the various infectious diseases, intestinal parasitosis alone constitutes one of the major public health problems in Nepal. Roughly, over 60% of Nepalese are infected with one or more than one species of parasites. In some rural areas, infection rate can be over 90%. Prevalence of intestinal parasites is 52% in children i.e. at least one intestinal parasite infection and 49% infection rate as whole population and varies with ethnic group and race. It is peck in during rainy summer and post rainy season. In Nepal, half of diarrhoeal stool samples show some kind of parasites and polyparasitic infection is common. Among the different intestinal parasitic infection, Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia lambia and Trichuris trichiura are predominant. Overall, intestinal helminthes infections alone rank fourth in Top Ten disease in Nepal.
There are seven institution conducting study in microbiology discipline and producing nearly 400 man power in this fields. As per as University requirement to get master degree, every students should conduct a research based dissertation in respected field. Many students confused what to do in thesis and how to do. Every year repeating the same work and due to some technical problems, the paper rejected by publisher to publish in journal paper. To make this work some what easy ,I am posting the previous research here.
  1. Mr. Rajan Pd. Adhikari   1994       Microbial Quality of fruits of Kathmandu valley and their utilization in wine making and upgrading protein content of fruits peels by using Aspergillus niger trichodema  and Penicillium spp
  2. Bidya  Shrestha                 1994       Study of campylobacter in diarrheal  and non-diarrheal Nepalese children and detection of  in diarrheal children
  3. Anjana Maharjan             1994       Bacteriological investigation on ice-cream of kathmandu
  4. Anjana Shrestha               1994       Study on the water pollution of Ranipokhari and use of fish culture as a biological control of pond pollution
  5. Kedar G.C.          1994       An indigenous fermented food of Eastern Nepal
  6. Shova Shrestha                 1994       Study of physical composition and bacteriological analysis of solid waste of Kathmandu city 
  7. Dwij Raj Bhatta                 1994       Isolation and characterization of thermo philic and anylase positive bacteria from hot spring of Nepal
  8. Pradeep Kumar Shah     1994       Biotyping of coagulase negative staphy lococci (CONS)
  9. Peare Banmali   1994       Bacteriological study of food and water of pode community of Kirtipur
  10. Bimmi Shrestha                1995       Epidemiology and microbiology of lower respiratory tract infection among adult patients in Nepal
  11. Gyanendra Bd. Karki       1995       Bacteriological study of chicken and buff meat of Kathmandu valley
  12. Indu Bikram Joshi             1995       Preliminary survey of dominant bacterial flora of indoor air of Kathmandu
  13. Arjuman Shrestha           1995       Proteolytic Activities of mesophilic Bacteria
  14. Sangita Shakya 1995       Study on the impolite activities of fungi isolated from different oil mill areas
  15. Prakash Ghimire               1995       Prevalence of Bacteriuria and UTI in Nepalese women
  16. Dev Kumar Ranjit             1995       Study of antimicrobial resistant Echerichia Coli
  17. Buddhi Pudasaini             1995       Study of solid waste of Kathmandu Valley and its impact on Kathmandu
  18. Moti lal Shrestha              1995       Microbiology of wound infection, a hospital based study
  19. Durga Ghimire   1995       Bacteriological profile of bacteriaemia patients visiting Patan Hospital
  20. Ira Tuladhar        1996       Bacteriological study of cheese of Kathmandu City
  21. Bishwa Kala Aryal             1996       Serological analysis of Escherichia coli isolated from various clinical specimens with special interest in gastroenteritis
  22. Sabina Dangol    1996       Microbiology of worm infection at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
  23. Rabindra Acharya             1996       A research on integrated fish culture utilizing human wastes in Nepal
  24. Pradipta Udas    1996       Bacteriological study of ice-cream butter and rasbery of Kathmandu city
  25. Pravin Malla "Shrestha"                1996       Improvement of nutrictional value of soybean by fermentation  using aspergillus oryzae
  26. Amod Kumar Pokharel 1996       Micro-Biological Study of paper industries effects
  27. Bihnesh Shrestha             1996       Screening of thermophiles from hot spring of Nepal for thermostable proteases.
  28. Kusumabati Bagracharya              1996       Bacteriological analysis of intestine of fish and its environment
  29. Usha Joshi           1996       Hazard analysis critical control points module of traditional Nepalese meat based street foods
  30. Sagarika Manandhar       1996       Microbiology of urinary tract infection a hospital based study
  31. Sarita Manandhar            1996       Isolation of pectolytic microorganisms from citnus fruits and characterization of the pectic enzymes
  32. Rashmila Prajapati           1996       Fermented soybean: A possible replacer of fish meal
  33. Rina Pradhan     1996       Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from soils of Nepal and its insect toxicity.
  34. Paru Joshi            1996       Bacteriological study of fresh vegetables of Kathmandu valley
  35. Bashudha Shrestha         1996       Isolation of salmonella species from blood and study of its antibiotic sensitivity patterns
  36. Pradipta Bhushan Pokhreli Udas               1996       Bacteriological study of ice-cream butter and rosbery of  Kathmandu city
  37. Chandra Prakash Bhatta                1996       Study of different diagnostic methods and prevalence of Pulmonary tuberculosis among Nepalese population
  38. Deen Bandhu Bhatta      1996       Hazard analysis critical control point process in milk chain
  39. Gyanendra Ghimire        1997       Studies on amylolytic activity during solid state fermentation of murcha a traditional yeast starter of Nepal
  40. Manoj Thapa     1997       Bacteriological study of water and its treatment using plant products
  41. Kishor Manandhar           1997       Serological survey of hepatitis B surface antigen among the healthy Nepalese males
  42. Sarala Joshi         1997       Microbiological study of bodyfluid
  43. Rakesh Kumar Jha           1997       Fermential soybean a suitable protein source in fish diet in relation to its enzyme system
  44. Batu Krishna Sharma Kuinkel      1997       Study on air microflora of Kathmandu valley and its seasonal and location variation
  45. Era Shrestha       1997       Study on B-Lactamase activity by microbiological and biochemical methods in Staphylococcus aureus from healthy Nasal carriers and Hospital Isolates
  46. Bikash Pandey   1997       Microbiological and chemical analysis of food beverages (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) of Kathmandu valley
  47. Manju Shree Shakya      1997       Microbial analysis of burn injuries at burn unit of different hospitals
  48. Chandana Gurung           1997       Study of actiology of acute diarrhoea with special interest in Salmonella and Shigella
  49. Rajeev Mani Nepal          1997       Nutritional improvement of soybean by fermentation for its possible use in feed for developing state of carp family
  50. Puspa Man Shrestha      1997       Bacteriological analysis of fish and its environment and enzymatic activities of fish isolates
  51. Kalpana K.C.       1997       Isolation of antibiotic resistant enteric bacteria from community ponds and their antibiotic transfer mechanims in such environment
  52. Sushilman Singh pradhan             1997       Optimization of Nutrient conditions for thormostable protoase production
  53. Rishi Prakash Niraula      1997       Hazard Analysis critical control point (HACCP) process of cheese manufacturing in Nepal
  54. Binod Lekhak     1997       Study on industrial effluent and its biolotical treatment using LEMNA species
  55. Sampurna Singh Dangol                1997       Cauterization and Optimization of amylase produced 
  56. Leela Shrestha  1997       Microbiology of Burn Wound in Children at Kanti children's hospital
  57. Kritika Gautam 1997       Prevalence of urinary tract infection on children 
  58. Rumu Amatya   1998       Studies on mesophilic and thermopilic microorganisms commonly found in compost piles of Kathmandu valley
  59. Bishnu Raj Tiwari              1998       An epidemiological study of antibiotic resistant enteric bacteria in sub-urban community of Kathmandu valley.
  60. Anjana Shakya 1998       Microbiology of oral cavity with special interest to B-Hemolytic Streptococcus 
  61. Kiran Shah           1998       Characterization of E-coli isolated from urinary tract infected patients
  62. Keshab Parajuli                 1997       Study of causative organisms from pus sample and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern
  63. Luna Bhatta        1998       Study of antimicrobial properties of punica granatminum 
  64. Makhan Maharjan           1998       Assessment of groundwater quality and study of antibiotic resistance and olidynamic action against some isolated enteric bacteria
  65. Reshma Tamrakar            1998       Antibacterial activities of antinomy cetes isolated from soils of Kathmandu valley
  66. Sunil Manandhar              1998       Impact of effluents on rivers and reduction of biochemical oxygen demand using Cladosporium oxysporum
  67. Archana Shrestha            1998       Cerviccts and cancer of in Nepal
  68. Kaushal Joshi     1999       A prospective study on bacteriology of lower respiratory tract infection among the patients visiting T.U. teaching hospital Kathmandu
  69. Jyoti Amatya      1998       Study of urinary tract infection and cancer of urinary bladder
  70. Krishna Lal Kandel            1999       Infection of foot ulcers in Leprosy Patients
  71. Archana Katuwal              1999       A perspective study on bacteriology of would infection among impatient at Bir Hospital (A Hospital Based Study)
  72. AnJali Tibrewal 1999       A prespective study on etiological agents causing infective endocarditis and related bacteri\aemic and septiaemic cases among patients visiting Bir Hospital
  73. Hirdaya Ratna Shakya     1999       Prospective study on aetidogy of childhood diarrhoea based on clinical featured and laboratory investigation
  74. Monika Joshi      1999       Seroprevalence of hepatitis B And hepatitis C infection among blood donors in Kathmandu valley
  75. Puspa Raj Dahal                1999       Utilization of fruit wastes for the production of citric acid via fermentation by using Aspergillums
  76. Buddhi Sagar Ghimire    1999       Utilization of tea wastes as a substrate for microbial protein production
  77. Rupa Acharya    1999       Production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus isolated from different edible foodstuffs of Kathmandu
  78. Deepak Singh    1999       Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from various geogra phical region of Nepal and characterization of their antibacterial agents.
  79. Bijaya Kumar Dhakal       1999       A prospective study of urinary tract infection based on culture and direct microscopy of urine along with the antibiotic sensitivity test of urinary pathogens
  80. Krishna Prashad Subedi                 1999       Insecticidal activities and immunology of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from insect samples of Nepal
  81. Roshana Joshi (Shrestha)             1999       Preliminary test of bacteriocins from Pseudomonas sps isolated from potato
  82. Sandesh Regmi                 1999       Isolation, screening, identification and selection of best fermentative yeast from murcha sample
  83. Aarati  Karki        1997       Prevalence of acute diarrhoeal episodes in Kathmandu valley during 1997
  84. Pallavi Sthapit    1999       The Isolation and identification of antibiotic producing bacteria in the compost samples of Kathmandu valley
  85. Shaila Basnyat   1999       Studies on effect of pesticides on soil inhabiting bacteria of pesticide applied cultivated fields of Kathmandu valley
  86. Palpasa Tuladhar              1999       A perspective study on bacteriology of wound infection at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
  87. Reena Lamichhane          1999       Study of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus  (MRSA) isolated from different clinical samples
  88. Chenu Gongol   1999       Fermentation of grape juice by using brewing yeast isolated from Nepalese starter-murcha
  89. Leena Rajbhandari          1999       Efficiency of alcohol fermentation of herdemu  vulgate (Naked barley) from traditional murcha
  90. Sanchita Sapkota              1999       Antibacterial Activity of natural honey: A preliminary study
  91. Thakur Prasad Paudel    1999       Drug resistant enteric bacteria in poultry samples of Kathmandu valley and their epidemiological study by plasmid profiling
  92. Harish Chandra Shrestha              2000       Screening of aflatoxin producing Aspergillus flavus isolated from maize and study on their growth suppression by various chemical agents
  93. Nawa Raj Bangade          1999       A prospective study on aetiology of bacteremia septicacmia at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
  94. Anand Bahadur Chand   2000       A prospective study on Aetiological agents of diarrheal disease in children in relation to parasites and to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolates
  95. Binita Panta        2000       A study on sexually transmitted infections among the patients visiting at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
  96. Sujan Piya           2000       A study on diarrhea in children in relation to behavioral and environment factors 
  97. Dev Raj Joshi      2000       Studies on role of exopolysaccharide of Xanthomonas campestris PV. campestris, isolated from cabbage seeds, in pathgenesis and correlation of exopolysaccharide in pathgenicity on host plants
  98. Abhignya Subedi              2000       Prevalence of multiple drug resistant enteric bacterial pathogens in diarrhoeal patients of Kathmandu and study of their relations by plasmid profiling 
  99. Priyambada Paudyal       2000       Study on the relationship between the infections of Helicobacter pylori and epstein barr virus and the corcinogenesis of the gastric cancer
  100. Chandra Kala Rai               2000       A perspective study on antibiotic sensitivity profiles of the organisms associated with clinical infections among the patients attending T.U. Teaching Hospital; A hospital based study
  101. Arishma Rajkarnikar (singh)         2000       Antibiotic resistant Vibrio cholerae isolated from Kathmandu valley and characterization of the isolates by biotyping and serotyping
  102. Shiva Raj Pokhrel             2000       Microbiological and chemical analysis of mineral water sold in the kathmandu valley
  103. Naba Raj Pokhrel             2000       Screening and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants of Nepal and isolation of pure antimicrobial compound four bushfire variegate
  104. Pankaj Acharya 2000       Microbiological study on street fried foods and isolation and identification of some microorganisms of public health importance
  105. Purushotam Prasai          2000       Microbiological study of raw meat of Kathmandu valley with public health and veterinary importance and serological study of the isolated Salmonella species
  106. Sunita Pokhrel   2000       Serodiagnosis of Syphilis among clinically suspected patients visiting Bir Hospital and the Risk of HIV and Hepatitis B infection among syphilitic patients
  107. Munman K.C.    -------    Bacterial analysis of street food in relation to child health
  108. Bhupesh Khadka              2000       Immuno diagnostics for tuberculosis
  109. Sapana Sharma                 2000       Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of some common species
  110. Rajandra Prasad Aryal    2000       Study on viruses in relation with skin cancer among Nepalese people
  111. Parmeshwor Narayan Amatya   2000       Study on cytokine (interferon-gamma) responses to skin test antigens of leprosy
  112. Chariu Arjyal      2001       Bacteriology of ear discharges
  113. Pratap Karki        2001       Study of solar Disinfection of drinking water
  114. Prakriti Raj Kandel           2001       A study of severe Malaria in-relation to HIV and syphilis among patients visiting bherizamal Hospital
  115. Abhilasla Karkey               2001       Monitoring of liver and renal function among human immunodeficiency virus positive individuals 
  116. Rupa Shakya      2001       Study on bacterial flora in blood specimen collected from hospitalized and out patients service of T.U. teaching hospital
  117. Prerana Bajracharya       2001       Sero-diagnosis of Japnese Encephalitis and malaria and an assesment of public health awarnes about the above diseases (A study confined within BHERI Zonal hospital)
  118. Prakash Kumar Paudyal 2001       Study of physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of Bagmati river and treatment of polluted water using clodosporium resinoe
  119. Suresh Subedi   2001       Study of prevalence of helicobacter pylori in gastroducdenal diseases and evaluation of antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates.
  120. Ganga Gharty Chetri       2001       Prevalence of tuberculosis among the suspected patients visiting Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital and their antimicrobial resistance pattern
  121. Arjun Thapa       2001       Study of indoor Vs. outdoor air microfilaria and its relations to PM 7.07
  122. Giri Raj Dahal     2001       Air quality assessment of Brick rain area
  123. Shila Bhattarai   2001       Study of microflora of vermicompost and its anlagonistic activity against plant pathogenic bacteria
  124. Saphala Dhital    2001       Determination of antibiotic resistant gram negative urinary pathogens in pediatric patient at kanti children's hospital
  125. Rama Dhungel   2001       Prevelance of common bacterial different clinical samples pathogens in submitted at Tribhuvan university teaching hospital and their antibiotics sensitivity test profiles
  126. Mahesh Ram Baidya       2001       Sereening and evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants of Nepal
  127. Buddhi Kumar Shrestha                2001       Study of hazare dialysis critical control point (HACCP) system in sausage-production plants
  128. Anju Sharma      2001       Enumeration and isolation of pesticide degrading bacteria from different soil samples of Kathmandu valley and study on transferability of degradative plasmid from Pseudomonas Putida isolates into E. Coli
  129. Lata Ghimire      2001       Study of microbial flora present in the conjzmctiva of the cataract patients before and after the use of betadinne solution and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern
  130. Sushama Sharma             2002       Study of Microbiological  and chemical quality of fermented milks (DAHI) of Kathmandu valley
  131. Chaman Ranjit   2001       Distribution of citrus Tiristeza virus in various regions in Nepal and development of virus free plantlets by meristem culture
  132. Tarani Prasad Paneru     2002       Antibiotic sensitivity profile of Escherichia coli, klebsiella and Pseudomonas of patients visiting TUTH Kathmandu
  133. Megha Raj Banjara          2002       Study of air, water and wound infection in different words of T.U. Teaching Hospital
  134. Sangita Bhattarai              2002       Insecticidal activities of Bacillus thuringiensis against cluex quinquefacatus and spodoptera Litura
  135. Kiran Babu Tiwari             2002       Study of Meningitis in patients University teaching Hospital
  136. Nawaraj Dhakal                2002       Microbial Digestion of vegetable and Kitchen wastes for Biogas
  137. Yogan Khatri       2002       Development of IND-elisa for for actinomycetes and Study of Senological Relationship
  138. Supriti Shrestha                2002       Assessment of Drinking water quality supplied by Nepal supply corporation Sundarighat and identification, Antibiotic sensitivity pattern and serotyping of isolated Escherichia coli.
  139. Sriju Sharma       2002       Pattern of Microbial flora among the visitors and the environment of intensive care unit (ICU) Tribhuvan University teaching Hospital  
  140. Rajita Rajbhandari           2002       Prevalence and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aereus (MRSA) in Bir Hospital
  141. Aashish Poudyal               2002       Salmonella Serotyping and Drug Susceptibility pattern from Environment and Clinical Samples of Urban Nepal
  142. Anima Shrestha                2002       Bacteriological Study of Upper Respiratory tract infection in pediatric patients
  143. Rupa Pandey     2002       A. Hospital based study of urinary tract infection among women visiting antental clinic of tribhuvan universit teaching hospital
  144. Tista Prasai          2002       Drinking water quality assessment of kathmandu valley and antibacterial property of Enteric Bacteria Isolated
  145. Deepak Acharya               2002       Prevalence of beta-haemolytic sterptococci in throat of school children and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern.
  146. Khadga Bikram Shah       2002       Study on nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among the post operative ward visitors, staff and patients of TU teaching hospital with drug sensitivity pattern
  147. Bishwa Raj Thapa             2003       Optimization and use of polymeisase chain reaction for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and Leprosy
  148. Durga Shreatha                 2003       Prevalence of Bacterial infection in Acute hepatitis in Nepal
  149. Sneha  Bam        2002       Quality control in tuberculosis smear microscopy 
  150. Ita Bhattarai       2003       Study of the prevalence of camfryholacter in Daw meat and drinking water in water corporation of Kathmandu and Possible research for shigella 
  151. Janak Raj Dhungana        2002       Tuberculosis and human immuno deficiency virus co-infection in united mession hospital Nepal
  152. Binod Prasad Pathak       2003       A prospective study on acute group a streptococcal pharyogitis and its delayed sequelae on school children of Kathmandu valley, Nepal
  153. Diyo Ram Rai      2003       Study of the factors associated with enteric parasitic infection among school children in a rural village setting in Kathmandu valley, Nepal
  154. Narayan Raj Bhattarai    2003       Anti-tuberculosis treatment resistant in pulmonary tuberculosis patients visiting German-Nepal tuberculosis project kalimati, Kathmandu,
  155. Keshav Rai          2003       Relative study of enterophathogens (parasites and bacteria) in gastroenteritis and its predisposing factors
  156. Rajender Prasad Subedi                2003       Study of Ambient air micro flora of Kathmandu valley and its relation to P.M. 10 
  157. Darshan Sapkota              2003       Prevalence of anteric parasitosis in HIV/AIDS Patients of Nepal
  158. Nagenra Prasad Yadav   2003       Prevalence of lymptatic filariasis is Dhenusha district of Nepal
  159. Madhu Sudan Pandey   2003       Study on the prevalence of multiple drug resistant Salmonella in poultry birds 
  160. Pallavi Gurung   2003       Microbial contamination of the contact lens and its care
  161. Sushil Chandra Regmi     2003       Evaluation of Nitrate test in detecting urinary Tract infection
  162. Salina Gairte       2003       Microbial colonization of maternal genital tract and its relationship to onset of early neonatal sepsis
  163. Bhagabati Panday            2004       Studies on the antibacterial activity of antiromycetes isolated from khambu region of Nepal.
  164. Sachindra Raj Joshi          2003       Carriage pattern of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy school children
  165. Preeti Gautan    2004       Prevalence of Urinary tract infection in Datetic Patients
  166. Pratap Shahi       2002       Comparative Study of tuberculosis test Ziehl Neelsen staining and culture in the diagnosis of tuberculosis
  167. Niraja Thapa       2002       Superficial fungal infection and awareness status among the patients visiting dermatology outpatients department of tribhuvan university teaching hospital
  168. Suraj Dhungel    2004       Moduflation of whole blood immune to phenolic glycolipid (PGTD of M. Leprae)
  169. Smritee Pokharel             2004       Comparative evaluation of different staining techniques for the diagnosis of tuberculosis lymphadenitis
  170. Manoj Ghimire 2004       Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance status in Kirtipur community bacterial isolates
  171. Pukar Acharya   2004       Air quality assessment of Kathmandu Valley
  172. Dipak Adhikari   2004       Production and  characterijation of the antimicrobial substances from Bacillus species
  173. Bharat Khatiwada            2004       Characterization of proteases from Bacillus species producing antimicrobial substances
  174. Punita Gauchan                2004       Lower respiratory tract infection a socio-medical aspect
  175. Chandra Sdhekheir Rajaure         2003       Study on performance of waste water  treatment plant at guheshwari
  176. Jaya Sharma       2004       A prospective study on microbiology of lower respiratory tract infection and antibiotic sensitivity profile with interest in multidrug resistance and extended spectrum of betalactamase strains 
  177. Surath Uuadhyaya           2004       Prevalence of Lymphatic filariasis in Parsa District of Nepal
  178. Puspa Raj Pandey            2004       Field evaluation of the OPTimal test for the rapid diagnosis of malaria
  179. Deepak Joshi     2004       An epidemiological study of malaria in Kanchanur District during 2003
  180. Yadav Wagley    2004       Microbiology of Bacteraemia and septicaemia in patients visiting Tribhuvan University, Teaching Hospital (TUTH) Kathmandu. 
  181. Anjita Rajbanshi               2004       Study on heavy metal resistant bacteria in the waste water treatment plant at Guheshwori
  182. Abhilasha Gurung            2004       Prevalence of catheter associated urinary tract infection as Hospital acquired infection in TUTH
  183. Amin Khadka     2004       Comparative evaluation of four different tests in the diagnosis of Visceral leishmaniasis in Nepal
  184. Toya Nath Sapkota          2004       Microbial quality evaluation of milk and butter with special reference to the milk pathogens and MBRT test
  185. Komal Rajj Rijal 2004       An epidemiological study of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance pattern in the pulmonary tuberculosis patients visiting national tuberculosis centre.
  186. Munal Subedi    2004       A Hospital study of urinary tract infection among pregnant women visiting Lumbini Zonal Hospital, Butwal
  187. Amrit M.S. Maharjan      2002       Study on the impairment of liver kindney and pancreas in Hepatitis B and C positive cases
  188. Ranjan K. C         2004       Enteropathogens associated with acute diarrhoea in patients visiting National Public Laboratory, Teku.
  189. Bijaya Malla        2004       Study on nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage enteroparasitic infectations in children
  190. Sabina Shrestha                2004       Study on the prevalence of Salmonella species from blood sample of the patients visiting national public health  laboratory, Teku
  191. Santosh Thapa  2004       Prevalence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in children visiting Kanti children's Hospitals
  192. Narayan Prasad Kandel 2004       Bacteriological profile of bacteraemia and speticaemia among patients of infective endocarditis
  193. Deepu Pudasaini              2004       Microbial study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital, Jorpati
  194. Puja Shrestha    2004       A prospective study of urinary tract infections in female patients attending Kathmandu Model Hospital
  195. Nirajan Thapa Kshetry   2004       Prevalence of Aeromonas in different clinical samples and water with special interest in Gastroenteritis
  196. Raj Kumar Karki                2004       Serostatus of rheumatoid factor, c-reactive protein, antistreptolysin-o and uric acid in patients visiting OM Hospital and research centre
  197. Gokarna Raj Ghimire                      Study of urinary tract infection among kidney transplant patients visiting National Public Health Laboratory, Teku.
  198. Bijaya Bajracharya           2004       Prevalence of vulvovaginal giardiasis in females attending gynecological outpatient department of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
  199. Pradeep Kafle   2004       Seroprevalence of torch in Nepalese women of childbearing age and evaluation of biochemical parameters
  200. Roshani Maharjan           2005       Detection of enteric pathogens (Vibrio Cholerae and Escherichia coli 0157) in childhood diarrhoeal cases
  201. Sulochana Basnet (Mahat)           2004       Prevalence of Urinary tract infection and candiasis of   pregnant women at community based reproductive health care & counseling center of Kirtipur Municipality
  202. Diksha Khadka   2005       Detection of Enteropathogens (Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Parasites) in the stool specimen of children suffering from diarrhea and admitted at kanti children Hospital
  203. D Radha               2004       Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of some medical plants
  204. Dinesh Thapa     2004       Seroprev valence of hepatitis B and HIV among volunteer blood donors of Kathmandu
  205. Dipendra Gautam            2005       Prevalence of lower respiratory tract pathogens (bacterial) in Nepalese HIV/AIDS Patients
  206. Prakash Chandra Amatya             2004       Study of Bacteraemia in malnourished children admitted to Kanti children's hospital
  207. Dal Bahadur Khatri           2005       Recovery of sliver from used X-Ray films using alkaline protease extracted from Bacillus spp
  208. Niraj Nakarmi    2005       Screening of soil bacillus species for ß lactamase activity
  209. Susan Pandey    2005       Genetic variability of Mycobacterium leprae in Nepal
  210. Rajdeep Bomjan              2005       Prevalence of multidrug resistant strains with reference to extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing strains among the bacterial pathogens isolated from different clinical samples at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
  211. Trishna Manandhar         2005       Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacterial pathogens in urinary trace infection with special reference to extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) oridycubt straubs
  212. Deepa Shrestha                2005       Study on Microbiology of urinary tract infection and the prevalence of multidrug resistant strains among the bacterial pathogens
  213. Govinda Prasad Dhungana           2005       Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in HIV-AIDS persons of Nepal
  214. Uma Shrestha   2005       Cross-sectional study of respiratory pathogenes and their antibiotic susceptibiligy pattern in Tribhuvan Unversity Teaching Hospital
  215. Ajaya Poudel     2006       Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for direct detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples
  216. Niroj Man Amatya           2006       A study on etiological agents of bacteraemia and antibiotic susceptibiligy pattern of isolates
  217. Anjana Upadhayay          2005       Biodiversity and bioactivity of endophytic fungi of tsuga dumosa D. Don
  218. Yukti Basnet       2006       Vermicomposting, enrichment of vermicompost by azotobacter chroococcum and response on phaseolus bean
  219. Bishnu Bhakta Dhungyel               2006       Prevalence of malaria and hepatitis B among Nepalese blood donors
  220. Deepika Shrestha            2006       Evaluation of different staining techniques (Ziehl neelsen stain, Kinyoun stain, Modified cold stain and fluorochrome stain) for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis
  221. Upendra Thapa Shrestha              2006       Study of delta encotoxin immunocrossreactivity of bacillus thuringiensis isolates from khumbu base camp of the Everest Region
  222. Gyan Sundar Sahukhal   2006       Study of genetic polymorphism among bacillus thuringensis isolates from Khumbu Base Camp of Everest Region by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase Chain Reaction
  223. Samira Khatiwada            2006       Study of prevalence of enteric fever and the assessment of widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever
  224. Sirjana Devi Shrestha     2006       A prospective study on etiology of diarrhea with reference to multiple drug resistant enteric bacterial pathogens
  225. Mr. Sunil Maharjan         2006       Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among HIV/HIDS patients of Kathmandu Valley and Dhulikhel
  226. Ms. Chamala Lama          2006       Microbiological study among diarrhoeal children in relation to cyclospora and rotavirus infection
  227. Mr. Navaraj Raj Adhikari               2006       Study of prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among HIV seropositive subjects and high risk group for HIV infection in Bagmati Zone, Nepal
  228. Mr. Dhan Kumar Pant    2006       Assessment of therapeutic of anti-mallarial drug (chloroquine) for plasmodium vivax in kanchanpur district, Nepal
  229. Mr. Bikash Shakya           2006       Study on intestinal infections by parasite and some bacteria among elderly people of Kathmandu Valley.
  230. Jyoti Pant            2006       Microbial study of hospital environment and carrier pattern study among staff in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hosptial
  231. Poonam Thapa  2006       Assessment of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) from restaurants of Kathmandu metropolitan city with respect to environmental condition
  232. Shyam Prasad Dumre     2006       Sero-epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in Nepal
  233. Arina Shrestha  2006       A study on soil transmitted helminthiasis in Kathmandu Valley
  234. Nisha Puri            2006       Study on the incidence of urinary tract infection in diabetic patients and the prevalence of multidrug resistant strains among the bacterial pathogenic isolates
  235. Sanchita Dahal   2006       Prevalence of bacterial and fungal agents causing lower respiratory tract infections in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  236. Sudeep Singh    2006       Isolation and identifcaton of the etiolotical agent of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients visiting national tuberculosis center, Thimi, Bhaktapur
  237. Shishir Sharma  2006       Microbial flora among vstors and the hospital environment in ICU and SICU at TUTH
  238. Sangeeta Shrestha          2006       A study on possible contribution of horizontal transmission in neonatal sepsis at TUTH
  239. Kiran Sapkota    2006       Prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical specimnets from patients and screening of nasal carriage of MRSA from Medical Staffs of Bir Hospital
  240. Dinesh Dhakal   2006       Study of the disease citrus canker and field trial to find its effective control measure in “Kavre” Nepal.
  241. Jeny Shrestha    2006       Effect of dual inoculation of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar p[haseoli and Piriformospora indica verma et al. on phaseolus vulgaris grown in the soil treated with vermicompost
  242. Rajani Shrestha 2006       Study on the effect of co-inoculation of bradyrhizobium japonicum and pirifirmospora indica verma et al. on glycine max (L.) merr.
  243. Shova Khanal     2006       A study on microbiology of urinary tract nfection at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital Kathmandu Nepal
  244. Olivia Thapa        2006       Evaluation of antibiacterial activity of some medicinal plants frequently used in respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in Nepal
  245. Rachana Manandhar      2006       Pattern of bacterial flora in various out patient departments of TUTH
  246. Asta Ram Khagi 2006       A comparative study of different diagnostic methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in suspected patients visiting National Tuberculosis Centre, Thimi, Bhaktapur, Nepal
  247. Sarita Shrestha  2007       Study on prevalence of common types of vaginitis (candidiasis, traichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis) among the pregnant women visiting thapathali maternity hospital Kathmandu
  248. Nirmala Dhungana           2007       Role of Glomus Microcarpum in the production of whear (triticum aestivum)  plants
  249. Padma Shrestha               2007       Study of bacteria causing urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial resistance trend at national public health laboratory
  250. Rup Bahadur Kunwor     2007       Nalidxic acid resistant salmonella with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility
  251. Shiva Ram Pant 2007       Corelation of secondary infection with peripheral level T lymphocyte with CD4 marker (CD$) count in HIV/AIDS patients
  252. Rama Gyewali   2007       A study on Microbiological and chemical quality of water of Kathmandu
  253. Sujata Lamichhane          2007       Study on seroprevalence of IgM Antibiodies against the agents of torch infections among the patients visiting National Public Health Laboratory
  254. Kamil Prajapati  2007       Effect of dual inoculation of azotobacterchroococcum and piriformospora indica verma et al on oryza satwal croun in the soil treated with vermicompost
  255. Shradha Chiplalu              2007       Microbiological study on gastroenteritis of children from Kanti Children's Hospital with reference to cyclospora and rotavirus infection
  256. Rojita Tuladhar  2007       Comparative evaluation of microscopic and cultural examination in bacterial meningitis among the patients attending Kanti Children Hospital
  257. Anup Muni Bajracharya 2007       Study of drinking quality of Kathmandu Metropolitan areas and evaluation of antibacterial property of some medicinal plants against isolated enteric bacteria
  258. Saraswoti Khadge            2007       DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Nepal using PCR-labelled is 6110 probe
  259. Bal Ram Adhikari              2007       Use of Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Lamp) for direct detection of Mycobacterium in sputum
  260. Semuhang Subba             2007       Study of antibiotic susceptibility pattern of mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary tuberculosis patients visiting national tuberculosis center, Thimim Bhaktapur, Nepal
  261. Rojita Tuladhar  2007       Comparative evaluation of microscopic and cultural examination in bacterial  meningitis among the patients attending Kanti Children Hospital
  262. Shradha Chipalu               2007       Microbiological study on gastroenteritis of children from Kanti Children's Hospital with reference to cyclospora and rotavirus infection
  263. Bina Laxmi Jayana            2007       Assessment of drinking water quality of madhyapur-Thimi ans study of anti bacterial effect of lime juice against bacterial isolates
  264. Kamala Lamsal   2005       Study the hospital environment of shahid gangalal national heart centre
  265. Yasoda Gyawali 2007       Study on bacteriological profile of infected wound from patient's visiting to lumbini zonal hospital, butwal, Nepal
  266. Deena Shrestha                2007       Prevalence of bacteraemia and septicaemia among children attending kanti children hospital with special reference to salmonella spp.
  267. Pragya Sharma  2007       Study on intestinal parasitic infections in tharu community of bardiya district
  268. Sujaya Nepali     2007       Screening of mycobacterium tuberculoss by selective inhibition with para-nitrobenzoic acid, its cytochemical staining and drug susceptibility to primary anti-tubercular drugs
  269. Bhim Shrees       2005       Microbiological and physico-chemical analysis of alcoholic beverages of Kathmandu Valley
  270. Prashqnna Raj Kafle        2007       Study on drinking water quality of Kathmandu and attending susceptibiligy of isolates 
  271. Khagendra Prakash K. C.               2007       Seroprevalence of rubella in Nepal
  272. Madan Singh Bohara      2007       Reproductive tract infections among women attending gynaecological outpatient department Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
  273. Sunita Maharjan               2007       Tuberculosis and human imuno-deficency virus co-infection in suspected TB patients
  274. Srijana Thapaliya              2007       Study of biodiversity and bioactivity of endophytic fungi of some Himalayan conifers of Nepal
  275. Prashamsa Karkee           2008       Bacterial isolatres and their antibiogram from wounds and abscesses of surgical outpatients visiting bir hospital
  276. Sushma Acharya               2008       Comparison of the resistance ratio and proportikon methods for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients visiting national tuberculosis centre
  277. Kiran Kumari      2008       Pattern of bacterial isolates and antibiogram from open wound infection an\mong the indoor patients of Bir Hoapital
  278. Binita Koirala      2008       Comparative study of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Lamp) for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum
  279. Khagendra Koirala           2008       Sterid biosynthesis and embryonic stem cell proteins as putative predictive breast cancer biomarker
  280. Sarmila Tandukar             2008       Enteropathogenic microorganisms in children under ten years of age attending Kanti Children's Hospital
  281. Surendra Karki  2008       Seroprevalence of hepatitisc and HIV among blood donors in Kathmandu valley
  282. Anil Shrestha     2008       Prevalence of soil transmitted parasites in raw vebetables of Kathmandu and stool samples of school children
  283. Rumika Maharjan            2008       Estimation of incidence of HIV infection in Nepal by mode of transmissionamong various exposure groups
  284. Nirajan Bhattarai              2008       Genetic simalasrities among bacillus thuringiensis strains from different climatic zones of Nepal
  285. Chringma Sherpa             2008       Biochemical and molecular characterization of actinomycetes prosessing antibacterial properties from soil samples of kalapatthar, mounteverest region
  286. Tara Devi Gurung             2008       Screening of actinomycetes from soil samples of Kalapatthar mount everest region for antibiosis
  287. Suman Thapa     2008       Immunological screening of actinomycetes of khumbu region of Nepal
  288. Pankaj Baral       2008       Multidrug resistance among various clinical bacterial isolates and production of different types of B-lactamases with subsequent transfer mechanism by plasmid DNA analysis
  289. Sanjiv Neupane                2008       Isolation identification and plasmid profiling of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens isolated from UTI patients 
  290. Suman Lama      2008       An evaluation of 5% NaOCI microscopy method for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis
  291. Shree Krishna Shrestha 2008       Assessment of arsenic tolerant bacteria from arsenic contaminated groundwater in nawalparasi district of Nepal
  292. Prerana Dhungana          2008       Isolation and characterization of arsenic tolerant microorganisms from tube well water of Nawalparasi, Nepal
  293. Manita Guragain              2008       Biochemical and genetic characterization of actinomycetes from  mount everest base camp
  294. Narendra Maden             2008       Perspectives of arsenic exposure and asymptomatic microbial infections in Nawalparasi District
  295. Kashi Ram Ghimire          2008       Microbiological quality evaluation of dahi/yoghurt of Kathmandu Valley
  296. Bishnu Prasad Marasini 2008       Evaluation of antivicrobial activities of medicinal plants against some fungi and antibiotic resistant bacteria
  297. Giridhari Rijal     2008       Urinary tract infection in diabetic microalbuminuric patients visiting B&B Hospital
  298. Santa Raj Khanal               2008       A comparative study of IGM capture Elisa and particle agglutination assay for the diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis among some Nepalese patients
  299. Junu Koirala        2008       Study on antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes isolated from soils of different parts of khumbu region
  300. Manoj Khadka   2008       Estimation and projection oif the trend of HIV/AIDS in Nepal till 2010 using estimation and projection pakage (EPP) softwere
  301. Neelam Karna   2008       Cross-sectional study of urinary pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern with reference to extended spectreum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing strains in Kathmandu Model Hospital
  302. Naresh Maharjan             2008       Evaluation of antibacterial activities of medicinal plants
  303. Dinesh Maharjan             2008       The study of antibacterial activities of common spices
  304. Barsha Gurung  2008       Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of salmonella isolates from blood sample of patients visiting Shree Birendra Hospital, Chauni
  305. Minu K. C.           2008       Comparasion of blood culture and single slide agglutination widal test for the diagnosis of enteric fever
  306. Rupa Nepal         2008       Bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates from infected burn wound at Kanti Children's Hospital
  307. Nabaraj Dahal    2008       Comparative evaluation of macroscopic, microscopic, serological and cultural examination of csf in bacterial memingitis
  308. Prakash Shrestha             2008       Study on HIV and sexually transmitted infections among the female commercial sex workers of Kathmandu Valley
  309. Rishi Baniya        2008       Screening of antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes from soil samples of manang region of Nepal and their biological characterization
  310. Dhiraj Acharya   2008       Fluoroquinolone susceptibiligy pattern of the salmonella isolates from enteric fever patients visiting to National Public Health Laboratory, Nepal
  311. Krishna Prasad Pant        2009       Sero-epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in some selectedhospitals of Nepal
  312. Ramesh Pun       2009       Sero-epidemiology of dengue virus infection in the post monsoon period I terai region of Nepal
  313. Supriya Sharma 2008       Bacteriological profile of urine of postoperative patients undergone open heart surgery at Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre, Nepal
  314. Ashish Chandra Shrestha              2009       Transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors in Kathmandu, Nepal
  315. Sulochana Manandhar   2008       Bacteriological and histological profile of heart valves resected from infective endocarditis patients
  316. Shailaja Adhikari               2008       Prevalence of helicobacter pylori among dyspeptic patients attending Bir Hospital, Nepal
  317. Manita Aryal      2008       Isolation, identification and antibiotic sensitivity testing of salmonella serovars from enteric fever suspected patients visiting Bir Hospital
  318. Krishna Govinda Prajapati            2009       Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of salmonella from blood of suspected enteric fever patients attending Patan Hospital
  319. Hemanta Khanal               2009       Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus among blood donors in Jhapa, Nepal
  320. Pratirodh Koirala              2009       Bacterioloigcal profiles of tracheal aspirates of patients attending National Institute of Neurolobical and allied sciences.
  321. Avishekh Gautam            2009       Evaluation of the three commercially availavle elisa test kits for the detection of Anti- HIV antibodies
  322. Archana Bhattarai            2009       Spectrum and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates causing conjunctivitis among the patients visiting B.P. Koirala lions center for ophthalmic studies
  323. Rabindra Karki   2009       Cholera incidence among diarrhoeal patients visiting national public health laboratory, Nepal
  324. Anita Bhattarai  2009       Bacterioogy of chronic dacryocystitis and antibiotic susceptibiligy pattern of isolated bacteria
  325. Esha Shrestha    2009       Isolation and characterization of salmonella from drinking water samples of urban water supply system of Kathmandu
  326. Pratibha Thapa  2009       Strain typing of mycobacterium leprae isolates from Nepal uning variable number of tanden repeats
  327. Binita Adhikari   2009       Use of minisatellite genetic profiling with clinical analysis of leprosy patients in Nepal